比特幣網絡已經經歷咗好多嘅叉, 因為呢個 cryptocurrency 的到來 2008. D 叉應該幫助開發人員解決諸如可伸縮性等問題, TPS 容量低 (每秒事務數), 有限塊大小, 並普遍為方便比特幣網絡過載. 比特幣是一個開源軟件, 網絡上的任何用戶都可以複製, 修改, 並喺代碼中引入自己的規則. 因此, 任何用戶都可以創建被認為係叉嘅新協議同鏈, 即網絡嘅軟或 hardforks.
softfork 係 blockchain 協議中可逆變化, 佢唔會阻止新鏈的節點與舊鏈的節點通信. 最好嘅 softfork 例子係隔離證人或 segwit. 網絡用戶喺8月激活了此 softfork, 以便優化蚊事務的結構, 從而佔用更少的內存空間. softfork 允許蚊喺唔改變比特幣網絡嘅工作嘅情況下容納更多信息.
hardfork 係一種新嘅網絡鏈, 當新規則同舊嘅 blockchain 協議唔兼容時形成. 在這種情況下, 新舊網絡的節點就冇辦法 “溝通,” 因為 hardfork 意味著改變共識機制本身. 在 hardforks 的幫助下, 網絡用戶試圖解決比特幣網絡的關鍵問題, 比如低網絡帶寬, 允許每秒處理多達七事務和有限的塊大小, 根據好多, 應持有超過 1 mb 的數據. hardforks 還允許用戶創建新的 cryptocurrencies, 作為比特幣嘅替代品.
以前 hardforks 結果
比特幣 xt 係第一個比特幣網絡 hardfork, 係8月舉行緊嘅 2015. hardfork, 係基於比特幣核心嘅源代碼, 應該增加張的大小 8 mb, 從而將網絡帶寬提高到 24 每秒事務數, 但 cryptocurrency 冇得到採礦界嘅必要支持. 實現比特幣 xt 需要 75% 所有比特幣網絡礦工進入新網絡, 但只有 12% 佢哋支持 hardfork. 在這方面, 一個主要開發商麦克赫恩賣佢 cryptocurrencies, 並離開該項目 2016. 因此, 隻 20 節點由原始 4,000 單位, 使得網絡無法在那一刻.
比特幣無限 hardfork 喺5月開始變舊的大小 2016, 做礦工們畀建議選擇未來網絡區塊的規模. 據礦工, 擴大該區塊的規模不僅可以消除排隊, 而且還可以透過增加整個街區的佣金總額嚟提高他們的盈利能力。. 但 hardforks 批評, 其中大部分係開發商, noted that this strategy could increase the possibility that large centralized pools of miners would begin to manipulate the network development.
This meant that miners with limited hardware capabilities would not be able to participate effectively in the development of the network and in the long run would be completely superseded. 因此, the network would become centralized in several pools. Experts also found several bugs in the Bitcoin Unlimited software, which first in April and then in May of this year led to the downfall of 70% of the nodes in the network, thereby undermining crypto community trust to these forks.
Bitcoin Classic project was launched to address the Bitcoin network scalability problems, which had not been solved by the Bitcoin XT hardfork. The goal of the project was to increase the block size to 2 MB and then to 4 mb. But this hardfork did not gain the necessary support of the crypto community. At the very beginning more than 2,000 nodes took part in the project,” 但數字下降到 100 的 2017. 在 11月, 該項目在 segwit2x 被取消後宣佈關閉, 該項目的開發者公開支持比特幣現金, 新 cryptocurrency.
比特幣現金可能係最著名和成功的比特幣網絡 hardfork. 由于強制 hardfork 協議, 比特幣現金出現在街區 478,558 上 1 8月. 作為叉一分子, 塊大小由 1 MB 到 8 mb, 而呢, 倒轉, 提高咗網絡容量並降低了交易費用. After hardfork, Bitcoin holders had an equal amount of Bitcoin Cash in their e-wallets. The new network has provided a mechanism that protects from concurrent transactions in two blockchains. 今日, 13 December, the Bitcoin Cash exchange rate is $1,616.84 and is currently placed third by the cryptomarket capitalization.
Bitcoin Gold cryptocurrency appeared on 24th of October as a result of hardfork on the block 491,407 carried out by mining firm Lightning ASIC in Hong Kong. The goal of the project is to become a more attractive currency for the non-professional miners than the original bitcoin. 在這方面, a greater number of network users can mine Bitcoin Gold and the cryptocurrency motto is “make bitcoin decentralized again.” Instead of the old Proof-of-Work protocol hardfork initiators use the new one, Equihash. This algorithm is more sensitive to the size of random access memory (RAM) and is also used when mining cryptocurrency Zcash. 今日, 13 December, Bitcoin Gold exchange rate is $276.88 and market capitalization is more than $4.5 億.
Bitcoin Diamond is the hardfork, which happened at the end of November on the block 495,866. Bitcoin Diamond miners create blocks on a new algorithm of proof of work (戰俘). 也, this cryptocurrency differs from the very first one by the ten times increase in volume of emissions and block size of 8 mb. Developers believe that this hardfork is intended to solve such problems as lack of privacy protection, slow transaction confirmation, and high threshold for new participants to enter the network. 創建比特幣鑽石開採網, 銀包, 節點代碼, 和 api, 以及喺 github 上添加開源代碼係計劃在年底.
超級比特幣, 一個新的 cryptocurrency, 出現在 12 December, 由於喺比特幣網絡上分組結果 498,888. 超級比特幣嘅座右銘係 “使比特幣再次偉大。” 值得注意嘅係, 而唔係傳統的 ico 呢個平台使用一種新嘅吸引投資的方法, 被稱為初始叉產品 (ifo). hardfork 提供單位增加到 8 mb. The network uses a technology Lightning Network that will allow conducting an unlimited number of micropayments. 此外, Super Bitcoin network is running smart contracts. Developers note, 然而, that the fork is intended to realize the crypto community desires and it is rather an experiment.
Lightning Bitcoin — the network division will presumably happen 23rd of December on the block 499,999. The developers of the new network want to combine the best qualities of bitcoin and ethereum. 因此, the Lightning Network technology will also be used in the new network for carrying out micropayments and the new DPOS (Proof of Delegated Stake) mechanism will be applied for consensus. To increase the unit up to 2 mb, which will increase transaction speed and it is expected that the network will support smart contracts. The network will also have an increased speed of new block creation which will take up to 3 seconds. While hardfork does not support SegWit, it provides protection from repeated transactions. 然而, 值得注意的是, 儘管即將推出日期, 該項目仍在建立一個工作網站.
比特幣神 hardfork, 由中國 cryptocurrency 投資者赞特拿發起, 係發生喺街區 501,225, 上 25 December. 商人說 pre-mining 唔會發生, 雖然排放量將 21 万神. 幾家證券交易所已經證實, 佢哋就同新嘅 cryptocurrency, 將係天才的比特幣持有人的比率為1到1.
Bitcoin Platinum was presented as a Bitcoin network hardfork, which was supposed to happen on the block 498,577 and create a new cryptocurrency. 然而, as Cointelegraph reports, the hardfork is a scam created by a teenager from South Korea, and the currency itself is a full copy of the Bitcoin Cash code.
Co-founder of ZenCash, Rob Viglione believes that the forks are the adequate step of blockchain development:
Open-source ecosystems are designed to evolve, whether that’s through in-project improvements or forks in which the entire code base goes in an incompatible direction. Evolution is a messy process, so it doesn’t always turn out well, but sometimes that’s the only way to have big breakthroughs.
The leading developer of blockchain in Sweetbridge, Bob Summerville believes that the forks are good because they allow members to decide how the network should develop:
There have been years of fear, uncertainty, and doubt within the Bitcoin community about the Risk of hard forks. It is apparent to me that most of that noise has been coming from groups that favor coercion and censorship over free markets and the right to secede.
There is no such thing as a ‘bad fork.’ You don’t have to cheer one team or the other. Experimentation and competition are good. Let the market decide and participate where you see value.
My most valuable learning experience from the ETH/ETC split was that minority chains are viable. If a crypto community has irreconcilable differences, then you can go your separate ways, and that is just fine. You get a divorce and both move on with your lives, rather than living together in misery forever, constantly arguing.”
But Director of LOOMIA, Saul Lederer has a completely opposite point of view:
“Saturating the market with different versions of Bitcoin is confusing to users and discredits the claim that there are a limited number of Bitcoins—since you can always fork it and double the supply,” notes Lederer. “What’s deeply troublesome is that these spin-offs sprung from a relatively minor squabble in the Bitcoin community on how to handle the block size limit. Instead of coming to an agreement, the community, developers, and code are fracturing into different groups.”